Case Study


geographic information systemgeographical information science, or geospatial information studies is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyse, manage, and present all types of geographically referenced data. In the simplest terms, GIS is the merging of cartographystatistical analysis, and database technology.

A GIS can be thought of as a system—it digitally creates and “manipulates” spatial areas that may be jurisdictional, purpose or application-oriented for which a specific GIS is developed. Hence, a GIS developed for an application, jurisdiction, enterprise or purpose may not be necessarily interoperable or compatible with a GIS that has been developed for some other application, jurisdiction, enterprise, or purpose.

What goes beyond a GIS is a spatial data infrastructure (SDI), a concept that has no such restrictive boundaries.


Therefore, in a general sense, the term describes any information system that integrates, stores, edits, analyses, shares and displays geographic information for informing decision making.

The term GIS-centric, however, has been specifically defined as the use of the Esri ArcGIS geodatabase as the asset/feature data repository central to computerised maintenance management system (CMMS) as a part of enterprise asset management and analytical software systems. GIS-centric certification criteria were specifically defined by NAGCS, the National Association of GIS-Centric Solutions.

GIS applications are tools that allow users to create interactive queries (user-created searches), analyse spatial information, edit data, maps, and present the results of all these operations. Geographic information science is the science underlying the geographic concepts, applications and systems.